Inertial flywheel resistance training and muscle oxygen saturation

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 Nov;58(11):1618-1624. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07793-3. Epub 2017 Jul 24.


Background: The inertial flywheel device causes an increase in eccentric overload during training. The aim was to study muscle oxygen saturation produced during an inertial flywheel squat training, comparing it with a barbell squat training.

Methods: Twelve male adults performed a barbell squat training (3×8 reps, 75-80% 1RM) and a flywheel squat training (3×8 reps, all-out). Muscle oxygen saturation (%SmO2), total hemoglobin (tHb), reoxygenation, heart rate (HR), lactate, vertical jumps, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were studied.

Results: Both protocols produced a significant decrease in %SmO2 and tHB during the sets of squats, and a significant increase in HR, lactates dand RPE after training. The flywheel squat protocol caused a greater decrease in %SmO2 than the barbell squat protocol in each of the sets of exercises (1st set: -67.5±7.2% vs. -53.7±16.2%; 2nd set: -67.2±13.5% vs. -53.6±15.4%; 3rd set: -68.1±13.0% vs. -55.0±17.0%), as well as a longer reoxygenation after finishing the training (61.7±12.6 vs. 55.7±13.7 s).

Conclusions: Although no differences were found on a muscle fatigue level, the flywheel training brought on greater physiological stress than the barbell squat training, observing a greater decrease in muscle oxygen saturation and a longer reoxygenation.

MeSH terms

  • Exercise
  • Heart Rate
  • Hemoglobins / analysis
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Male
  • Muscle Fatigue
  • Muscle Strength
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Oxygen / analysis*
  • Resistance Training / methods*
  • Young Adult


  • Hemoglobins
  • Lactic Acid
  • Oxygen