Functional and Transcriptomic Characterization of Peritoneal Immune-Modulation by Addition of Alanyl-Glutamine to Dialysis Fluid

Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 24;7(1):6229. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05872-2.


Peritonitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality during chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Glucose-based PD fluids reduce immunological defenses in the peritoneal cavity. Low concentrations of peritoneal extracellular glutamine during PD may contribute to this immune deficit. For these reasons we have developed a clinical assay to measure the function of the immune-competent cells in PD effluent from PD patients. We then applied this assay to test the impact on peritoneal immune-competence of PD fluid supplementation with alanyl-glutamine (AlaGln) in 6 patients in an open-label, randomized, crossover pilot trial (EudraCT 2012-004004-36), and related the functional results to transcriptome changes in PD effluent cells. Ex-vivo stimulation of PD effluent peritoneal cells increased release of interleukin (IL) 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. Both IL-6 and TNF-α were lower at 1 h than at 4 h of the peritoneal equilibration test but the reductions in cytokine release were attenuated in AlaGln-supplemented samples. AlaGln-supplemented samples exhibited priming of IL-6-related pathways and downregulation of TNF-α upstream elements. Results from measurement of cytokine release and transcriptome analysis in this pilot clinical study support the conclusion that suppression of PD effluent cell immune function in human subjects by standard PD fluid is attenuated by AlaGln supplementation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dialysis Solutions / pharmacology*
  • Dipeptides / metabolism*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peritoneum / drug effects
  • Peritoneum / immunology*
  • Peritoneum / metabolism
  • Pilot Projects
  • Renal Dialysis / methods*
  • Transcriptome*


  • Cytokines
  • Dialysis Solutions
  • Dipeptides
  • alanylglutamine