In 50 Escherichia coli strains obtained from the bladder puncture urine of patients with chronic pyelonephritis, determinations of virulence properties were performed. All of the E. coli strains isolated from 26 acute episodes of pyelonephritis were found in the smooth form. 30% possessed K 1 antigen, 77% showed the ability to form hemolysin and 30% produced colicin V (aerobactin). Fimbriae (detected by mannose-resistant hemagglutination) were registered in 81%, and plasmids ranging between 50 and 70 Md were demonstrated in 70% of the bacteria. In contrast to this, only 70% of the E. coli strains isolated from 24 patients at an inactive stage of pyelonephritis were found in the smooth form; 10% of these encoded K 1 antigen, 20% hemolysin and 10% colicin V. Plasmids in the range 50 to 70 Md could be found in 30%. On the basis of multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis, it was confirmed that uropathogenic strains possess several virulence properties, mannose-resistant hemagglutination being of particular importance.