The clinical manifestation of metastasis in a vital organ is the final stage of cancer progression and the main culprit of cancer-related mortality. Once established, metastasis is devastating, but only a small proportion of the cancer cells that leave a tumor succeed at infiltrating, surviving, and ultimately overtaking a distant organ. The bottlenecks that challenge cancer cells in newly invaded microenvironments are organ-specific and consequently demand distinct mechanisms for metastatic colonization. We review the metastatic traits that allow cancer cells to colonize distinct organ sites.
Keywords: Cancer; metastasis; metastatic colonization; organ-specific metastasis.
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