Monte Carlo simulations of skin exposure to electromagnetic field from 10 GHz to 1 THz

Phys Med Biol. 2017 Aug 9;62(17):6993-7010. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa81fc.


In this study, we present an assessment of human-body exposure to an electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from 10 GHz to 1 THz. The energy absorption and temperature elevation were assessed by solving boundary value problems of the one-dimensional Maxwell equations and a bioheat equation for a multilayer plane model. Dielectric properties were measured [Formula: see text] at frequencies of up to 1 THz at body temperature. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to assess variations of the transmittance into a skin surface and temperature elevation inside a body by considering the variation of the tissue thickness due to individual differences among human bodies. Furthermore, the impact of the dielectric properties of adipose tissue on temperature elevation, for which large discrepancies between our present measurement results and those in past works were observed, was also examined. We found that the dielectric properties of adipose tissue do not impact on temperature elevation at frequencies over 30 GHz. The potential risk of skin burn was discussed on the basis of the temperature elevation in millimeter-wave and terahertz-wave exposure. Furthermore, the consistency of the basic restrictions in the international guidelines set by ICNIRP was discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Body Temperature
  • Electromagnetic Fields*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Monte Carlo Method*
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Skin / radiation effects*