Efficacy and safety of lixisenatide in a predominantly Asian population with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled with basal insulin: The GetGoal-L-C randomized trial

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Feb;20(2):335-343. doi: 10.1111/dom.13072. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Abstract

Aims: To assess the effects on glycaemic control of lixisenatide vs placebo as add-on treatment to basal insulin (BI) ± metformin and effects on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in patients with insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: Patients (n = 448) with inadequately controlled T2D were randomized (1:1) to lixisenatide or placebo as add-on to BI ± metformin for 24 weeks after an 8-week run-in phase, during which BI was titrated to a target self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG; 4.4-5.6 mmol/L). The primary endpoint was absolute change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24. Secondary efficacy endpoints included: percentage of responders; changes in 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG); 7-point SMPG (daily average); body weight (BW); total daily BI dose; fasting plasma glucose; and safety assessments.

Results: Baseline demographics were similar in the two treatment groups. After insulin optimization during run-in, lixisenatide was superior to placebo in mean change from baseline (7.9% [standard deviation {s.d.}, 0.66] and 7.9% [0.70], respectively) to week 24 in HbA1c (least squares mean [standard error {s.e.}] change -0.62% [0.09] vs -0.11% [0.09]; P < .0001, respectively) and higher proportions of patients achieved HbA1c targets. Two-hour PPG, daily mean SMPG and mean BW were reduced further and daily BI dose was lower with lixisenatide than placebo (-1.12 kg vs 0.04 kg [P < .0001]; -3.0 U vs -1.9 U [P = .0033], respectively). Treatment-emergent adverse events were greater with lixisenatide than placebo (63.8% vs 40.8%, respectively). The incidence of symptomatic hypoglycaemia was similar (lixisenatide 15.6% vs placebo 13.5%).

Conclusions: In Asian patients insufficiently controlled on BI ± metformin, lixisenatide was superior to placebo in glycaemic control, with a tolerability profile in line with other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists.

Clinical trial number: NCT01632163 (clinicaltrials.gov).

Keywords: GLP-1; incretin therapy; incretins; randomized trial.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor / agonists*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor / metabolism
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemia / chemically induced
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Incidence
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Resistance* / ethnology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptides / adverse effects
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Postprandial Period

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • GLP1R protein, human
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Peptides
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • lixisenatide

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01632163