Purpose of the study: There was inconsistent evidence about the benefit of vitamin D plus evening primrose oil (EPO) supplement intake on lipid profiles and reduced oxidative stress among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The current study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D plus EPO supplementation on lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS.
Materials and methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among 60 vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 1000 IU vitamin D3 plus 1000 mg EPO (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Metabolic profiles were quantified at baseline and after the 12-week intervention.
Results: Compared with the placebo group, women in vitamin D and EPO co-supplementation group had significant increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (+10.7 ± 8.4 vs. -0.5 ± 1.6 ng/mL, p < 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (GSH) (+62.7 ± 58.0 vs. -0.7 ± 122.7 µmol/L, p = 0.01), while there were significant decreases in triglycerides (-7.3 ± 23.8 vs. +6.9 ± 26.3 mg/dL, p = 0.03), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol levels (-1.5 ± 4.7 vs. +1.4 ± 5.3 mg/dL, p = 0.03), total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (-0.3 ± 0.4 vs. -0.02 ± 0.4, p = 0.02), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (-0.4 ± 0.4 vs. +0.5 ± 1.8 µmol/L, p = 0.008).
Conclusion: Overall, vitamin D and EPO co-supplementation for 12 weeks among vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS significantly improved triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol, GSH, and MDA levels.
Keywords: Lipid profiles; oxidative stress; polycystic ovary syndrome; supplementation.