Social jetlag - a measure of disruption of the circadian system - has been linked to obesity, but its association with metabolic complications in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) is unknown in the literature. We examined the associations between social jetlag and obesity status and metabolic parameters among individuals with NCCDs. Patients (n = 792) with NCCDs (obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus or dyslipidaemia) attended clinics of the public health service of the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. They were classified in three obesity statuses: non-obese: BMI < 30 kg/m2; metabolically healthy obese (MHO): BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and less than three high-risk biomarkers for metabolic syndrome; and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO): BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and with high-risk values on three or more biomarkers for metabolic syndrome. After adjustments for confounding variables, social jetlag was positively associated with fasting glucose levels among all subjects (β = 0.08, p = 0.03) and MUO subjects (β = 0.32, p < 0.001). Patients with social jetlag (>1 h) presented a significant odds ratio (OR) of being overweight (OR = 2.0, confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.6, p = 0.006) and MUO (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-2.8, p = 0.01). These results suggest that social jetlag is associated with a higher risk of overweight and related metabolic complications in individuals with NCCDs.