The long and the short of long-term memory--a molecular framework

Nature. 1986;322(6078):419-22. doi: 10.1038/322419a0.


A single learning event initiates several memory processes with different time courses of retention. While short term memory involves covalent modification of pre-existing proteins, the finding that long-term memory requires the expression, during learning, of additional genes, makes it possible to analyse in molecular terms the induction and retention of long-term memory.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Learning
  • Memory*
  • Memory, Short-Term
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / biosynthesis
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / physiology*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Synaptic Transmission
  • Time Factors


  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Protein Kinases
  • Calcium