Food consumption, nutrient intake, and dietary patterns in Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots in Ghana

Food Nutr Res. 2017 Jul 6;61(1):1341809. doi: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1341809. eCollection 2017.


Background: West African immigrants in Europe are disproportionally affected by metabolic conditions compared to European host populations. Nutrition transition through urbanisation and migration may contribute to this observations, but remains to be characterised. Objective: We aimed to describe the dietary behaviour and its socio-demographic factors among Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots living different Ghanaian settings. Methods: The multi-centre, cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study was conducted among Ghanaian adults in rural and urban Ghana, and Europe. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Results: Contributions of macronutrient to the daily energy intake was different across the three study sites. Three dietary patterns were identified. Adherence to the 'mixed' pattern was associated with female sex, higher education, and European residency. The 'rice, pasta, meat, and fish' pattern was associated with male sex, younger age, higher education, and urban Ghanaian environment. Adherence to the 'roots, tubers, and plantain' pattern was mainly related to rural Ghanaian residency. Conclusion: We observed differences in food preferences across study sites: in rural Ghana, diet concentrated on starchy foods; in urban Ghana, nutrition was dominated by animal-based products; and in Europe, diet appeared to be highly diverse.

Keywords: RODAM; diet; dietary patterns; nutrient intake; nutrition transition; principal component analysis; sub-Sahara African populations.