Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in India: Current evidence on diagnosis & management

Indian J Med Res. 2017 Mar;145(3):271-293. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_177_16.


Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients. Optimal treatment of RR-TB, MDR-TB and XDR-TB cases alone will not suffice to reduce the global burden. The TB control programmes need to prioritize on policies focusing on the effective as well as rational use of first-line drugs in every newly diagnosed drug susceptible TB patients so as to prevent the emergence of drug resistance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • HIV / pathogenicity
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / microbiology
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis / pathogenicity*
  • Risk Factors
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / epidemiology*
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / microbiology
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / therapy*