Comparison of the effect of lavender and bitter orange on sleep quality in postmenopausal women: A triple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

Women Health. 2018 Sep;58(8):851-865. doi: 10.1080/03630242.2017.1353575. Epub 2017 Aug 25.


This trial compared the effects of lavender and bitter orange on sleep quality in postmenopausal women. This trial was conducted in 2015. Eligible postmenopausal women were allocated into one of two intervention groups or a control group (n = 52 per group) in a 1:1:1 ratio using a randomized block design. Intervention groups received 500 mg capsules containing only bitter orange or lavender flower powder, and the control group received 500 mg capsules containing starch. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory was used before and eight weeks after starting the intervention. Data analyses were based on intention to treat. A one-way ANOVA showed a slightly significant difference in mean sleep score among the three groups before the intervention (p = .045). The general linear model, adjusted for baseline sleep score and confounding factors, showed significant differences among the groups in the mean sleep score after eight weeks of treatment (p < .001). Bitter orange and lavender significantly improved the mean sleep score compared with the control group (p < .001 and p = .003, respectively). The positive effect of bitter orange and lavender on sleep quality in postmenopausal women suggests that they can be used to improve sleep quality in such women.

Keywords: Bitter orange; citrus aurantium; lavender; menopause; sleep quality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Citrus*
  • Female
  • Flowers
  • Humans
  • Lavandula*
  • Middle Aged
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Postmenopause*
  • Powders
  • Sleep / drug effects*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / prevention & control


  • Plant Extracts
  • Powders

Associated data

  • IRCT/IRCT201504236582N11