Scapular dyskinesis among competitive swimmers

J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2017 Jul;21(3):633-636. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2016.11.011. Epub 2016 Nov 27.


Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of scapular dyskinesis (SD) in competitive swimmers during training sessions.

Methods: Repeated measurement observational study.20 young competitive swimmers were filmed before, at midpoint and at the end of a training session, performing shoulder flexion and abduction. SD was examined separately by two assessors. Demographic and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were collected.

Results: SD was observed in 30% of the swimmers before training, in 70%, an hour later, and in 80%, upon completion of the training session. The difference between the baseline and mid-practice was close to significance (p-value = 0.055), and between mid-practice and end of practice was significant (p = 0.004).

Conclusions: This study confirmed that the prevalence of SD increases throughout a training session in most swimmers. The main reason might be fatigue of the muscles which stabilize the scapula, therefore, when examining a sportsmen's shoulder, it is important to examine the SD post-training or following simulation of the training session in the clinic.

Keywords: Scapular dyskinesis; Shoulder evaluation; Shoulder pain; Swimmers.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletes*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Child
  • Dyskinesias / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Scapula / physiopathology*
  • Swimming / physiology*
  • Young Adult