Troponin is a specific cardiac infarction isoform (TnIc, TnTc) and its determination is used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction even with normal Electrocardiography. The increase of cardiac troponins occurs in a variety of clinical situations without an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), cardiologists and emergency physicians are often confronted with positive troponins that are difficult to interpret. Few data exist about the occurrence, the clinical characteristics and the predictive value in case of absence of ACS. The objective of this study is to present the main extracardiac causes responsible of the increase of TnIc. We present some clinical cases that illustrate this diagnostic problem. A troponin elevation is observed in myopericarditis, renal failure, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, septic shock, rhabdomyolysis, stroke and others where there is a myocardial damage unrelated to coronary occlusion. Many cases of false positives, which raise the possibility of analytical interferences, must be identified.
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; extra coronary pathologies; troponin.