T2-FLAIR Mismatch, an Imaging Biomarker for IDH and 1p/19q Status in Lower-grade Gliomas: A TCGA/TCIA Project

Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Oct 15;23(20):6078-6085. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0560. Epub 2017 Jul 27.


Purpose: Lower-grade gliomas (WHO grade II/III) have been classified into clinically relevant molecular subtypes based on IDH and 1p/19q mutation status. The purpose was to investigate whether T2/FLAIR MRI features could distinguish between lower-grade glioma molecular subtypes.Experimental Design: MRI scans from the TCGA/TCIA lower grade glioma database (n = 125) were evaluated by two independent neuroradiologists to assess (i) presence/absence of homogenous signal on T2WI; (ii) presence/absence of "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign; (iii) sharp or indistinct lesion margins; and (iv) presence/absence of peritumoral edema. Metrics with moderate-substantial agreement underwent consensus review and were correlated with glioma molecular subtypes. Somatic mutation, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, gene expression, and protein array data from the TCGA lower-grade glioma database were analyzed for molecular-radiographic associations. A separate institutional cohort (n = 82) was analyzed to validate the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign.Results: Among TCGA/TCIA cases, interreader agreement was calculated for lesion homogeneity [κ = 0.234 (0.111-0.358)], T2-FLAIR mismatch sign [κ = 0.728 (0.538-0.918)], lesion margins [κ = 0.292 (0.135-0.449)], and peritumoral edema [κ = 0.173 (0.096-0.250)]. All 15 cases that were positive for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign were IDH-mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted tumors (P < 0.0001; PPV = 100%, NPV = 54%). Analysis of the validation cohort demonstrated substantial interreader agreement for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign [κ = 0.747 (0.536-0.958)]; all 10 cases positive for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign were IDH-mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted tumors (P < 0.00001; PPV = 100%, NPV = 76%).Conclusions: Among lower-grade gliomas, T2-FLAIR mismatch sign represents a highly specific imaging biomarker for the IDH-mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted molecular subtype. Clin Cancer Res; 23(20); 6078-85. ©2017 AACR.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Brain Neoplasms / mortality
  • Chromosome Aberrations*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19*
  • Female
  • Glioma / diagnosis*
  • Glioma / genetics*
  • Glioma / mortality
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers