Lifetime Maximization via Hole Alleviation in IoT Enabling Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Sensors (Basel). 2017 Jul 21;17(7):1677. doi: 10.3390/s17071677.


In Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), there are two major factors which degrade the performance of the network. One is the void hole which occurs in a particular region due to unavailability of forwarder nodes. The other is the presence of energy hole which occurs due to imbalanced data traffic load on intermediate nodes. Therefore, an optimum transmission strategy is required to maximize the network lifespan via hole alleviation. In this regard, we propose a heterogeneous network solution that is capable to balance energy dissipation among network nodes. In addition, the divide and conquer approach is exploited to evenly distribute number of transmissions over various network areas. An efficient forwarder node selection is performed to alleviate coverage and energy holes. Linear optimization is performed to validate the effectiveness of our proposed work in term of energy minimization. Furthermore, simulations are conducted to show that our claims are well grounded. Results show the superiority of our work as compared to the baseline scheme in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime.

Keywords: End2End Delay (E2ED); Internet of Things Wireless Sensor Networks (IoTWSNs); energy consumption; energy hole; linear programming; network lifetime; routing; traffic load.