Lipodystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by loss of adipose tissue. Here, we report on clinical spectra of neuromuscular manifestations of Turkish patients with lipodystrophy. Seventy-four patients with lipodystrophy and 20 healthy controls were included. Peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy was a common finding (67.4%) in lipodystrophic patients with diabetes. Neuropathic foot ulcers were observed in 4 patients. Drop foot developed in 1 patient with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1. Muscle symptoms and hypertrophy were consistent findings in congenital generalized lipodystrophy (21/21) and familial partial lipodystrophy (25/34); on the other hand, overt myopathy with elevated creatine kinase activity was a distinctive characteristic of congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4. Muscle biopsies revealed myopathic changes at different levels. Accumulation of triglycerides was observed which contributes to insulin resistance. All patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy suffered from tight Achilles tendons at various levels. Scoliosis was observed in congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (2/2) and familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (2/17). Atlantoaxial instability was unique to congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (2/2). Bone cysts were detected in congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1 (7/10) and congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 (2/8). Our study suggests that lipodystrophies are associated with a wide spectrum of neuromuscular abnormalities.
Keywords: Insulin resistance; Lipodystrophy; Myopathy; Neuropathy.
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