Clinical manifestation of high-grade fever and skin rash before neutrophil engraftment, termed pre-engraftment syndrome (PES) or pre-engraftment immune reaction, has been frequently observed after cord blood transplantation (CBT). The pathophysiology of PES is poorly understood, but cytokine storm during the early phase of CBT is thought to be 1 of the main cause of PES. However, the cytokine profiles of PES after CBT are unclear. Therefore, we examined the relationship between serum cytokine profiles and PES in 44 adult patients who received CBT in our institution between February 2013 and June 2016. Serum levels of 21 cytokines, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-18, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-33, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IFN-α, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, were measured by multiplex bead assays using a flow cytometer. The median time until the absolute neutrophil count was >.5 × 109/L was 21 days (range, 15 to 41 days). The cumulative incidence of PES was 79.6% (95% confidence interval, 63.3% to 88.5%) at 60 days after CBT. Serum levels of IL-5 (P = .009) and IL-6 (P = .01) at 2 weeks were significantly higher in patients who developed PES compared with those who did not develop PES. The conversion from naïve to effector or central memory phenotype of T cells was observed in PES. These data indicate that elevations of IL-5 and IL-6 around the time of clinical manifestation may be possible biomarkers for PES after CBT.
Keywords: Cord blood transplantation; Cytokine; Interleukin-5; Interleukin-6; Pre-engraftment immune reaction; Pre-engraftment syndrome.
Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.