Differences in cardio-ankle vascular index in a general Mediterranean population depending on the presence or absence of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors

Atherosclerosis. 2017 Sep;264:29-35. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.07.013. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

Abstract

Background and aims: The main aim of this study is to describe the differences in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in individuals with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors or a previous history of vascular diseases (WCVRF) compared to healthy individuals (free of risk factors and previous history of vascular diseases; FCVRF) in a general Mediterranean population. The secondary aim is to describe the proportion of CAVI≥9 depending on the cardiovascular risk category in both CVRF groups by sex.

Methods: The study is a descriptive analysis of 2613 participants randomly selected in the Girona province (Catalonia, Spain).

Results: CAVI mean differences between sexes and age categories in both CVRF groups followed the same pattern, the FCVRF group (men 25.2%; women 14.4%) in turn had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 than the WCVRF group (men 57.9%; women 51.8%). The percentage of men and women with CAVI≥9 with low risk was 13.9% and 11.3% in the FCVRF group, and 31.8% and 42.0% in the WCVRF group; with moderate risk, it was 55.8% and 10.0% in the FCVRF group and 60.3% and 49.0% in the WCVRF group.

Conclusions: In both sexes, FCVRF groups had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 as well as lower mean CAVI scores, across all 10 year-age categories from 40 to 69 years, than WCVRF groups. Moreover, CAVI≥9 was frequent in individuals with low and moderate coronary risk in the WCVRF group but also in the FCVRF group. These results suggest that CAVI assessment to detect asymptomatic arteriosclerosis could be a useful tool to improve cardiovascular risk stratification.

Keywords: Arterial stiffness; Cardio-ankle vascular index; Cardiovascular risk; Cardiovascular risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Ankle Brachial Index*
  • Asymptomatic Diseases
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Spain / epidemiology