Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from ruminants: A systematic review

Int J Food Microbiol. 2017 Oct 3:258:38-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.07.007. Epub 2017 Jul 15.


Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals. This parasite has been classified into three major lineages. Our aim was to assess and compare the identified Types and genotypes in ruminants. From November 2014 to April 2015, four English language databases and four Persian databases that reported data on the T. gondii genotyping in ruminants were searched. Overall, typing results of the 250/307 T. gondii isolates in all animals showed that Type II was a predominant Type (81.4%). In addition, genotyping data from the 82/215 T. gondii isolates or strains indicated that atypical genotypes were predominant (38.13%). This systematic review has demonstrated a large degree of genetic diversity in some countries. However, in the new nomenclature of genotyping, there are atypical or exotic genotypes, such as Chinese 1, Types Br (I, II, III and IV), and Type 12. Further genotyping studies are required to corroborate the current results.

Keywords: Diversity; Genotype; Ruminants; Toxoplasma gondii; Type.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA, Protozoan / genetics
  • Genetic Variation / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Ruminants / parasitology*
  • Toxoplasma / classification
  • Toxoplasma / genetics*
  • Toxoplasma / isolation & purification*
  • Toxoplasmosis, Animal / parasitology*


  • DNA, Protozoan