Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare knee laxity and graft function (tissue force) between anatomic and non-anatomic posterolateral (PL) bundle augmentation.
Methods: Twelve (n = 12) fresh-frozen mature, unpaired porcine knees were tested using a robotic testing system. Four knee states were compared: (a) intact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), (b) deficient PL and intermediate bundles, (c) anatomic PL augmentation, and (d) non-anatomic PL augmentation. Anterior tibial translation (ATT), internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER), and the in situ tissue force were measured under an 89.0-N anterior tibial load and 4.0-N m internal and external tibial torques.
Results: Both anatomic and non-anatomic PL augmentation restored the ER, IR, and ATT of the intact knee at all knee flexion angles (n.s.). Both anatomic and non-anatomic PL augmentation restored the in situ tissue force of the ACL during ER and IR loading and ATT loading at all knee flexion angles except at 60° of knee flexion, where the non-anatomic PL augmentation did not restore the in situ tissue force of the ACL during external rotation loading and the anatomic PL augmentation did not restore the in situ tissue force of the ACL during IR loading. Furthermore, there were no differences in ATT, IR, ER, and in situ tissue force under anterior tibial loading, IR and ER loading between the two reconstruction groups.
Conclusion: There were no significant differences between anatomic and non-anatomic PL augmentation using the porcine knee model.
Keywords: Anatomic ACL reconstruction; Augmentation; Porcine; Posterolateral bundle; Rotational stability.