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Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions


Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

Fabien J Cousin et al. Microorganisms.


Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

Keywords: apple; cider; fermentation; lactic acid bacteria; microbial diversity; organoleptic quality; safety improvement.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Cider-making process in France. Legend: +, optional addition; alcohol degree; density; ADY: active dry yeast.

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