Objective: To investigate the causes and characteristics of golf-related shoulder injuries in Korean amateur golfers.
Methods: Golf-related surveys were administered to, and ultrasonography were conducted on, 77 Korean amateur golfers with golf-related shoulder pain. The correlation between the golf-related surveys and ultrasonographic findings were investigated.
Results: The non-dominant shoulder is more likely to have golf-related pain and abnormal findings on ultrasonography than is the dominant shoulder. Supraspinatus muscle tear was the most frequent type of injury on ultrasonography, followed by subscapularis muscle tear. Investigation of the participants' golf-related habits revealed that only the amount of time spent practicing golf was correlated with supraspinatus muscle tear. No correlation was observed between the most painful swing phases and abnormal ultrasonographic findings. Participants who had not previously visited clinics were more likely to present with abnormal ultrasonographic findings, and many of the participants complained of additional upper limb pain.
Conclusion: Golf-related shoulder injuries and pain are most likely to be observed in the non-dominant shoulder. The supraspinatus muscle was the most susceptible muscle to damage. A correlation was observed between time spent practicing golf and supraspinatus muscle tear.
Keywords: Golf; Shoulder pain; Ultrasonography.