Purpose. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa provoke serious infections, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Methodology. The risk factors and predictors of mortality for P. aeruginosa (n=84; 46 carbapenem-resistant) and A. baumannii (n=129; all carbapenem-resistant) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in an ICU were evaluated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the agar disk diffusion method according to EUCAST guidelines. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by a gradient method (Etest). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for P. aeruginosa during the carbapenem-resistant outbreak in 2014. Epidemiological data were collected from the patients' chart reviews.Results/Key findings. Hospitalization during the summer months, prior KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) BSI, and the administration of tigecycline, aminoglycosides and cortisone were independently associated with P. aeruginosa BSIs. MLST revealed the dissemination of clone ST227, including carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. Hospitalization during the summer months, prior KPC-Kp BSI, and the administration of antibiotics, carbapenem and cortisone were independently associated with A. baumannii BSIs. The 30-day mortality rate for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii BSI was 45.2 and 39.5 %, respectively. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at onset, septic shock, age, and prior KPC-Kp BSI were significantly associated with P. aeruginosa BSI mortality. The administration of at least one active antibiotic was identified as a predictor of a good prognosis. Septic shock and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II at onset were independently associated with A. baumannii BSI mortality. The administration of at least one active antibiotic and colistin-vancomycin co-administration were identified as predictors of a good prognosis.Conclusion. KPC-Kp infection predisposes ICU patients to BSI by either A. baumannii or P. aeruginosa. The administration of at least one active antibiotic leads to better survival rates.
Keywords: bloodstream infection; carbapenem resistance; colistin-vancomycin co-administration; intensive care unit (ICU); seasonality; tigecycline.