Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial

Nutrition. 2017 Sep:41:14-23. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.03.008. Epub 2017 Mar 29.


Objective: Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet.

Methods: Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m2), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h.

Results: From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P < 0.05) and an increase in fasting peptide YY (PYY; P < 0.05); however, there were no changes in fasting insulin or leptin concentrations. The postprandial response for PYY was higher after the PUFA-rich diet visit compared to baseline (P < 0.01). However, there were no differences in the postprandial response for ghrelin, insulin, leptin, or VAS measures from pre- to post-diet in either the PUFA-rich diet or control (ns).

Conclusion: A PUFA-rich diet consumed for 7 d favorably altered fasting and postprandial physiological markers of hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness.

Keywords: Ghrelin; Insulin; Leptin; PUFA; PYY; SFA; VAS.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Diet, High-Fat / methods*
  • Dietary Fats / blood
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology*
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / blood
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Ghrelin / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hunger / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Peptide YY / drug effects
  • Satiation / drug effects
  • Satiety Response / drug effects*
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
  • Ghrelin
  • Peptide YY