Influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone, microcrystalline cellulose and colloidal silicon dioxide on technological characteristics of a high-dose Petiveria alliacea tablet

Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2017 Dec;43(12):2011-2015. doi: 10.1080/03639045.2017.1359621. Epub 2017 Aug 3.


Purpose: Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub used by its immunomodulatory, anticancerogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study determined the influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD) and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) on the technological characteristic of a high-dose P. alliacea tablet prepared by the wet granulation method.

Methodology: The botanical and pharmacognostic analysis of the plant material was firstly performed, followed by a 23 factorial design considering three factors at two levels: (a) the binder (PVP) incorporated in formulation at 10% and 15% (w/w); (b) the compacting agent (CSD) added at 10% and 15% (w/w) and; (c) the diluent (MC) included at 7.33% and 12.46% (w/w). The analysis of pharmaceutical performance and the accelerated and long-term stability of the best prototype were also completed.

Result and discussion: The binder, compacting agent and the interaction binder/diluent had a significant impact on breaking force of high-dose P. alliacea tablet. The optimum formula was found to contain 15% (w/w) of CSD, 7.33% (w/w) of MC and 10% (w/w) of PVP. At these conditions, the tablet shows a breaking force of 77.96 N, a friability of 0.39%, a total phenol content of 1.30 mg/tablet and a maximum disintegration time of 6 min.

Conclusions: The use of adequate amounts of PVP, MC and CSD as per the factorial design allowed the preparation of a tablet suitable for administration, despite the inappropriate flow and compressibility properties of the P. alliacea powder.

Keywords: High-dose plant tablet; P. alliacea; binder; diluent; formulation.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Cellulose / administration & dosage*
  • Cellulose / chemistry
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Excipients / chemistry*
  • Phytolaccaceae / chemistry*
  • Povidone / administration & dosage*
  • Povidone / chemistry
  • Powders
  • Silicon Dioxide / administration & dosage*
  • Silicon Dioxide / chemistry
  • Tablets / administration & dosage*
  • Tablets / chemistry


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Excipients
  • Powders
  • Tablets
  • Silicon Dioxide
  • Cellulose
  • Povidone
  • microcrystalline cellulose