Regulatory T cells (Tregs) promote cancer by suppressing antitumor immune responses. We found that anti-LAP antibody, which targets the latency-associated peptide (LAP)/transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) complex on Tregs and other cells, enhances antitumor immune responses and reduces tumor growth in models of melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, and glioblastoma. Anti-LAP decreases LAP+ Tregs, tolerogenic dendritic cells, and TGF-β secretion and is associated with CD8+ T cell activation. Anti-LAP increases infiltration of tumors by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and reduces CD103+ CD8 T cells in draining lymph nodes and the spleen. We identified a role for CD103+ CD8 T cells in cancer. Tumor-associated CD103+ CD8 T cells have a tolerogenic phenotype with increased expression of CTLA-4 and interleukin-10 and decreased expression of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and granzymes. Adoptive transfer of CD103+ CD8 T cells promotes tumor growth, whereas CD103 blockade limits tumorigenesis. Thus, anti-LAP targets multiple immunoregulatory pathways and represents a potential approach for cancer immunotherapy.
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