Background: Wire-localized excision of nonpalpable breast cancer is imprecise, resulting in positive margins 25-30% of the time.
Methods: Patients underwent preoperative supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A radiologist outlined the tumor edges on consecutive images, creating a three-dimensional (3D) view of its location. Using 3D printing, a bra-like plastic form (the Breast Cancer Locator [BCL]) was fabricated, with features that allowed a surgeon to (1) mark the edges of the tumor on the breast surface; (2) inject blue dye into the breast 1 cm from the tumor edges; and (3) place a wire in the tumor at the time of surgery.
Results: Nineteen patients with palpable cancers underwent partial mastectomy after placement of surgical cues using patient-specific BCLs. The cues were in place in <5 min and no adverse events occurred. The BCL accurately localized 18/19 cancers. In the 18 accurately localized cases, all 68 blue-dye injections were outside of the tumor edges. Median distance from the blue-dye center to the pathologic tumor edge was 1.4 cm, while distance from the blue dye to the tumor edge was <5 mm in 4% of injections, 0.5-2.0 cm in 72% of injections, and >2 cm in 24% of injections. Median distance from the tumor center to the BCL-localized wire and to the clip placed at the time of diagnosis was similar (0.49 vs. 0.73 cm) on specimen mammograms.
Conclusions: Information on breast cancer location and shape derived from a supine MRI can be transferred safely and accurately to patients in the operating room using a 3D-printed form.