Aim: To compare the microbiome of healthy (H) and diseased (P) peri-implant sites and determine the core peri-implant microbiome.
Materials and methods: Submucosal biofilms from 32 H and 35 P sites were analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq, Illumina), QIIME and HOMINGS. Differences between groups were determined using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), t tests and Wilcoxon rank sum test and FDR-adjusted. The peri-implant core microbiome was determined.
Results: PCoA showed partitioning between H and P at all taxonomic levels. Bacteroidetes, Spirochetes and Synergistetes were higher in P, while Actinobacteria prevailed in H (p < .05). Porphyromonas and Treponema were more abundant in P while Rothia and Neisseria were higher in H (p < .05). The core peri-implant microbiome contained Fusobacterium, Parvimonas and Campylobacter sp. T. denticola, and P. gingivalis levels were higher in P, as well as F. alocis, F. fastidiosum and T. maltophilum (p < .05).
Conclusion: The peri-implantitis microbiome is commensal-depleted and pathogen-enriched, harbouring traditional and new pathogens. The core peri-implant microbiome harbours taxa from genera often associated with periodontal inflammation.
Keywords: DNA; dental implant; microbiome; peri-implantitis; periodontal; sequencing.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.