A prospective randomized trial compared the administration of intrapleural plus intravenous Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum) versus placebo in patients with resected Stage I and Stage II non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Treatment consisted of 7 mg C. parvum injected into the pleural space and 7 mg C. parvum intravenously once between days 6 and 12 postoperatively and 7 mg intravenously every 3rd month during the 1st year. Intrapleural administration of 35 cc of saline served as the placebo and the flush after intrapleural C. parvum. Of the 303 patients entered into this study, 286 were evaluable, with an average follow-up time of 3.5 years. More complications, especially fever, were observed in patients receiving C. parvum. A fever greater than 38 degrees C was observed in 9% of the patients assigned to placebo and 76% of the patients assigned to C. parvum. There was no significant difference between the treatments with respect to disease-free interval or survival.