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. 2017 Apr 6;(666):1-349.
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.666.9191. eCollection 2017.

Synopsis of the Pelidnotine Scarabs (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae, Rutelini) and Annotated Catalog of the Species and Subspecies

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Free PMC article

Synopsis of the Pelidnotine Scarabs (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae, Rutelini) and Annotated Catalog of the Species and Subspecies

Matthew R Moore et al. Zookeys. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The pelidnotine scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) are a speciose, paraphyletic assemblage of beetles that includes spectacular metallic species ("jewel scarabs") as well as species that are ecologically important as herbivores, pollinators, and bioindicators. These beetles suffer from a complicated nomenclatural history, due primarily to 20th century taxonomic and nomenclatural errors. We review the taxonomic history of the pelidnotine scarabs, present a provisional key to genera with overviews of all genera, and synthesize a catalog of all taxa with synonyms, distributional data, type specimen information, and 107 images of exemplar species. As a result of our research, the pelidnotine leaf chafers (a paraphyletic group) include 27 (26 extant and 1 extinct) genera and 420 valid species and subspecies (419 extant and 1 extinct). Our research makes biodiversity research on this group tractable and accessible, thus setting the stage for future studies that address evolutionary and ecological trends. Based on our research, 1 new species is described, 1 new generic synonym and 12 new species synonyms are proposed, 11 new lectotypes and 1 new neotype are designated, many new or revised nomenclatural combinations, and many unavailable names are presented. The following taxonomic changes are made: New generic synonym: The genus Heteropelidnota Ohaus, 1912 is a new junior synonym of Pelidnota MacLeay, 1819. New species synonyms: Plusiotis adelaida pavonacea Casey, 1915 is a syn. n. of Chrysina adelaida (Hope, 1841); Odontognathus gounellei Ohaus, 1908 is a revised synonym of Pelidnota ebenina (Blanchard, 1842); Pelidnota francoisgenieri Moore & Jameson, 2013 is a syn. n. of Pelidnota punctata (Linnaeus, 1758); Pelidnota genieri Soula, 2009 is a syn. n. of Pelidnota punctata (Linnaeus, 1758); Pelidnota lutea (Olivier, 1758) is a revised synonym of Pelidnota punctata (Linnaeus, 1758); Pelidnota (Pelidnota) texensis Casey, 1915 is a revised synonym of Pelidnota punctata (Linnaeus, 1758); Pelidnota (Strigidia) zikani (Ohaus, 1922) is a revised synonym of Pelidnota tibialis tibialis Burmeister, 1844; Pelidnota ludovici Ohaus, 1905 is a syn. n. of Pelidnota burmeisteri tricolor Nonfried, 1894; Rutela fulvipennis Germar, 1824 is syn. n. of Pelidnota cuprea (Germar, 1824); Pelidnota pulchella blanda Burmeister, 1844 is a syn. n. of Pelidnota pulchella pulchella (Kirby, 1819); Pelidnota pulchella scapularis Burmeister, 1844 is a syn. n. of Pelidnota pulchella pulchella (Kirby, 1819); Pelidnota xanthogramma Perty, 1830 is a syn. n. of Pelidnota pulchella pulchella (Kirby, 1819). New or revised statuses: Pelidnota fabricelavalettei Soula, 2009, revised status, is considered a species; Pelidnota rioensis Soula, 2009, stat. n., is considered a species; Pelidnota semiaurata semiaurata Burmeister, 1844, stat. rev., is considered a subspecies. New or comb. rev. and revised status: Plusiotis guaymi Curoe, 2001 is formally transferred to the genus Chrysina (C. guaymi (Curoe, 2001), comb. n.); Plusiotis transvolcanica Morón & Nogueira, 2016 is transferred to the genus Chrysina (C. transvolcanica (Morón & Nogueira, 2016), comb. n.). Heteropelidnota kuhnti Ohaus, 1912 is transferred to the genus Pelidnota (P. kuhnti (Ohaus, 1912), comb. n.); Odontognathus riedeli Ohaus, 1905 is considered a subspecies of Pelidnota rubripennis Burmeister, 1844 (Pelidnota rubripennis riedeli (Ohaus, 1905), revised status and comb. rev.); Pelidnota (Strigidia) acutipennis (F. Bates, 1904) is transferred to the genus Sorocha (Sorocha acutipennis (F. Bates, 1904), comb. rev.); Pelidnota (Odontognathus) nadiae Martínez, 1978 is transferred to the genus Sorocha (Sorocha nadiae (Martínez, 1978), comb. rev.); Pelidnota (Ganonota) plicipennis Ohaus, 1934 is transferred to the genus Sorocha (Sorocha plicipennis (Ohaus, 1934), comb. rev.); Pelidnota similis Ohaus, 1908 is transferred to the genus Sorocha (Sorocha similis (Ohaus, 1908), comb. rev.); Pelidnota (Ganonota) yungana Ohaus, 1934 is transferred to Sorocha (Sorocha yungana (Ohaus, 1934), comb. rev.); Pelidnota malyi Soula, 2010: 58, revised status; Xenopelidnota anomala porioni Chalumeau, 1985, revised subspecies status. To stabilize the classification of the group, a neotype is designated for the following species: Pelidnota thiliezi Soula, 2009. Lectotypes are designated for the following names (given in their original combinations): Pelidnota brevicollis Casey, 1915, Pelidnota brevis Casey, 1915, Pelidnota debiliceps Casey, 1915, Pelidnota hudsonica Casey, 1915, Pelidnota oblonga Casey, 1915, Pelidnota pallidipes Casey, 1915, Pelidnota ponderella Casey, 1915, Pelidnota strenua Casey, 1915, Pelidnota tarsalis Casey, 1915, Pelidnota texensis Casey, 1915, and Scarabaeus punctatus Linnaeus, 1758. The following published infrasubspecific names are unavailable per ICZN Article 45.6.1: Pelidnota (Odontognathus) cuprea var. coerulea Ohaus, 1913; Pelidnota (Odontognathus) cuprea var. rufoviolacea Ohaus, 1913; Pelidnota (Odontognathus) cuprea var. nigrocoerulea Ohaus, 1913; Pelidnota pulchella var. fulvopunctata Ohaus, 1913; Pelidnota pulchella var. sellata Ohaus, 1913; Pelidnota pulchella var. reducta Ohaus, 1913; Pelidnota unicolor var. infuscata Ohaus, 1913. The following published species name is unavailable per ICZN Article 11.5: Neopatatra synonyma Moore & Jameson, 2013. The following published species name is unavailable per application of ICZN Article 16.1: Parhoplognathus rubripennis Soula, 2008. The following published species name is unavailable per application of ICZN Article 16.4.1: Strigidia testaceovirens argentinica Soula, 2006, Pelidnota (Strigidia) testaceovirens argentinica (Soula, 2006), and Pelidnota testaceovirens argentinica (Soula, 2006). The following published species names are unavailable per application of ICZN Article 16.4.2: Homonyx digennaroi Soula, 2010; Homonyx lecourti Soula, 2010; Homonyx mulliei Soula, 2010; Homonyx simoensi Soula, 2010; Homonyx wagneri Soula, 2010; Homonyx zovii Demez & Soula, 2011; Pelidnota arnaudi Soula, 2009; Pelidnota brusteli Soula, 2010; Pelidnota chalcothorax septentrionalis Soula, 2009; Pelidnota degallieri Soula, 2010; Pelidnota lavalettei Soula, 2008; Pelidnota lavalettei Soula, 2009; Pelidnota dieteri Soula, 2011; Strigidia gracilis decaensi Soula, 2008, Pelidnota (Strigidia) gracilis decaensi (Soula, 2008), and Pelidnota gracilis decaensi (Soula, 2008); Pelidnota halleri Demez & Soula, 2011; Pelidnota injantepalominoi Demez & Soula, 2011; Pelidnota kucerai Soula, 2009; Pelidnota malyi Soula, 2010: 36-37; Pelidnota mezai Soula, 2009; Pelidnota polita darienensis Soula, 2009; Pelidnota polita orozcoi Soula, 2009; Pelidnota polita pittieri Soula, 2009; Pelidnota punctulata decolombia Soula, 2009; Pelidnota punctulata venezolana Soula, 2009; Pelidnota raingeardi Soula, 2009; Pelidnota schneideri Soula, 2010; Pelidnota simoensi Soula, 2009; Pelidnota unicolor subandina Soula, 2009; Sorocha carloti Demez & Soula, 2011; Sorocha castroi Soula, 2008; Sorocha fravali Soula, 2011; Sorocha jeanmaurettei Demez & Soula, 2011; Sorocha yelamosi Soula, 2011; Xenopelidnota bolivari Soula, 2009; Xenopelidnota pittieri pittieri Soula, 2009. Due to unavailability of the name Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Soula 2009, we describe the species as intentionally new (Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Moore, Jameson, Garner, Audibert, Smith, and Seidel, sp. n.).

Keywords: New World; jewel beetles; leaf chafers; taxonomy.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Clypeal shape varying from rounded, parabolic, trapezoidal, subquadrate (A–D), and emarginate (E–F). Lateral edge of mandibles with no reflexed teeth (lacking teeth in A, but the mandible is reflexed rather than flattened in A, two reflexed teeth (B, E, F), or one reflexed tooth (C)). Apical bead of pronotum varying from obsolete (A) to complete medially (B, C, D, F). Disc of frons with V-shaped depression (E) or frons planar, smooth, lacking V-shaped depression (A–D, F) A Chrysina beyeri Skinner B Epichalcoplethis velutipes velutipes (Arrow) C Parhomonyx fuscoaeneus (Ohaus) D Chipita mexicana (Ohaus) E Sorocha sp. F Homonyx elongatus (Blanchard).
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Characters of the mesofemora and metatibiae in pelidnotine genera. A Epichalcoplethis aciculata (F. Bates), metatibia somewhat flattened (dorsal view) B Pelidnota virescens, metatibia not flattened (dorsal view) C Mecopelidnota sp., metatibia at base with a semicircular notch D Pseudogeniates cordobaensis Moore et al., metatibia simple at base E Mesomerodon gilletti Soula male, acute production of posterior margin of mesotibia (ventral view).
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Characters of the thorax (ventral view) and elytral apex (dorsal and lateral views). Mesosternal keel not surpassing base of mesocoxae (A) or keel surpassing base of mesocoxae (B). Acute, spiniform projections at apex of elytra (C, D). A Homonyx elongatus B Pelidnota dobleri Frey C Mesomerodon gilletti, dorsal view D Mesomerodon gilletti, lateral view.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Neighbor-joining tree for individuals of P. punctata across the species’ distribution based on CO1 data. Between-species divergence is typically above 10% (e.g., P. punctulata and P. strigosa), whereas within species divergence is typically less than 1% (e.g., P. punctata and P. lugubris).
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Catoclastus jaumesi Soula holotype male and allotype female from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus, holotype B Specimen labels, holotype C Male genitalia, dorsal view, holotype D Dorsal habitus, allotype E Specimen labels, allotype.
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Chalcoplethis kirbii misionesensis Soula holotype male from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male genitalia, dorsal view.
Figure 7.
Figure 7.
Chipita mexicana (Ohaus) female specimen from FSCA. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus.
Figure 8.
Figure 8.
Chrysina baileyana Monzón paratype male from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 9.
Figure 9.
Chrysina benesi Pokorný and Curoe holotype male from NMPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 10.
Figure 10.
Plusiotis cunninghami (Curoe) (valid name Chrysina cunninghami [Curoe]) paratype male from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 11.
Figure 11.
Chrysina giesberti Monzón paratype male from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 12.
Figure 12.
Plusiotis orizabae H. W. Bates (valid name Chrysina orizabae [H. W. Bates]) holotype from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 13.
Figure 13.
Chrysophora chrysochlora (Latreille) male exemplar specimen from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 14.
Figure 14.
Ectinoplectron oryctoides (Ohaus) male exemplar specimen from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 15.
Figure 15.
Epichalcoplethis aciculata (F. Bates), male specimen. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Male genitalia, dorsal view.
Figure 16.
Figure 16.
Epichalcoplethis gilletti Soula holotype male from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 17.
Figure 17.
Epichalcoplethis santistebani Bouchard and Soula holotype male from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus B Male genitalia, dorsal view C Specimen labels.
Figure 18.
Figure 18.
Pelidnota sanctijacobi Ohaus (valid name Epichalcoplethis sanctijacobi [Ohaus]) type male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 19.
Figure 19.
Epichalcoplethis velutipes romeroi Soula holotype male and allotype female from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus, holotype B Specimens labels, holotype C Specimen labels, allotype D Male genitalia dorsal view, holotype E Dorsal habitus, allotype.
Figure 20.
Figure 20.
Holotype female of Eremophygus calvus Gutiérrez from UCCC. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels.
Figure 21.
Figure 21.
Eremophygus lasiocalinus Ohaus holotype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 22.
Figure 22.
Holotype male of Eremophygus leo Gutiérrez from UCCC. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia.
Figure 23.
Figure 23.
Eremophygus pachyloides Ohaus holotype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and egg.
Figure 24.
Figure 24.
Eremophygus philippii Ohaus holotype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Parameres, dorsal view D Male genitalia, lateral view E Specimen labels.
Figure 25.
Figure 25.
Homeochlorota chiriquina (Ohaus) male from DBPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 26.
Figure 26.
Homonyx bahianus Ohaus (valid name H. chalceus bahianus) type male (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Parameres, caudal view.
Figure 27.
Figure 27.
Homonyx chalceus Blanchard male (male specimen compared [by Ohaus] with Blanchard’s type deposited at MNHN). A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Specimen labels and male genitalia.
Figure 28.
Figure 28.
Homonyx feyeri Ohaus holotype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Parameres, caudal view.
Figure 29.
Figure 29.
Homonyx chalceus var. fuscocupreus Ohaus (valid name H. fuscocupreus) type male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimens labels D Parameres, caudal view.
Figure 30.
Figure 30.
Homonyx planicostatus peruanus Ohaus (valid name H. peruanus) syntype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and mouthparts.
Figure 31.
Figure 31.
Homonyx planicostatus Blanchard (male specimen compared [by Ohaus] with Blanchard’s type from MNHN). A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 32.
Figure 32.
Homonyx chalceus santiagensis Ohaus (valid name H. santiagensis) type male (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimens labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Parameres, caudal view.
Figure 33.
Figure 33.
Homonyx chalceus uruguayanus Ohaus (valid name H. uruguayanus) syntype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimens labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Parameres, caudal view.
Figure 34.
Figure 34.
Homothermon paulista Ohaus (valid name H. praemorsus Burmeister) type male (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimens labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view.
Figure 35.
Figure 35.
Homothermon serrano Ohaus paralectotype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimens labels and male genitalia D Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 36.
Figure 36.
Hoplopelidnota metallica (Laporte) invalid neotype male from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus B Male parameres, caudal view C Specimen labels.
Figure 37.
Figure 37.
Hoplopelidnota metallica (Laporte) male from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 38.
Figure 38.
Pelidnota (Pelidnota) egregia Frey (valid name Mecopelidnota arrowi F. Bates) paratype male from CMNC. A Dorsal habitus B Ventral habitus C Lateral habitus D Male parameres, right lateral view E Male parameres, left lateral view F Male parameres, caudal view. Images by François Génier.
Figure 39.
Figure 39.
Mesomerodon gilletti Soula holotype male and allotype female from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus holotype B Specimen labels, holotype C Male genitalia, lateral view D Specimen labels, allotype E Dorsal habitus, allotype.
Figure 40.
Figure 40.
Mesomerodon gilletti Soula male from FSCA. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Parameres, caudal view.
Figure 41.
Figure 41.
Lasiocala arrowi Ohaus (valid name Microogenius arrowi [Ohaus]) paralectotype male from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 42.
Figure 42.
Oogenius (Microogenius) gutierrezi Martínez (valid name Microogenius gutierrezi Martínez) holotype male from MACN. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels and male genitalia.
Figure 43.
Figure 43.
Oogenius (Microogenius) martinezi Gutiérrez (valid name Microogenius martinezi [Gutiérrez]) paratype male from UCCC. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia.
Figure 44.
Figure 44.
Neogutierrezia bicolor Ocampo & Ruiz-Manzanos paratype from IAZA. A Dorsal habitus. Photograph courtesy of Federico Ocampo, Pergamino, Argentina.
Figure 45.
Figure 45.
Oogenius arrowi Gutiérrez holotype from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels D Type labels.
Figure 46.
Figure 46.
Oogenius castilloi Martínez and Peña paratype from MNNC. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels.
Figure 47.
Figure 47.
Oogenius chilensis var. barrosi Gutiérrez (valid name Oogenius chilensis Ohaus) holotype female from UCCC. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels.
Figure 48.
Figure 48.
Oogenius (Oogenius) lariosae Martínez (valid name Oogenius lariosae Martínez) male holotype from MACN. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels, male genitalia, and specimen parts.
Figure 49.
Figure 49.
Oogenius gutierrezi Martínez and Peña (valid name O. penai Mondaca) paratype from PVGH. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels.
Figure 50.
Figure 50.
Pachacama ocampoi Soula male from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 51.
Figure 51.
Homonyx fuscoaeneus Ohaus (valid name Parhomonyx fuscoaeneus [Ohaus]) male type (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 52.
Figure 52.
Parhoplognathus limbatipennis (Ohaus) from USNM. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus.
Figure 53.
Figure 53.
Pelidnota ancilla F. Bates male holotype from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 54.
Figure 54.
Pelidnota (Odontognathus) adriani Martínez (valid name Pelidnota bahiana adriani [Martínez]) paratype male from CMNC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 55.
Figure 55.
Pelidnota (Ganonota) boyi Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota boyi Ohaus) holotype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 56.
Figure 56.
Pelidnota burmeisteri burmeisteri Burmeister male specimen from MSPC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus.
Figure 57.
Figure 57.
Pelidnota tricolor Nonfried (valid name Pelidnota burmeisteri tricolor Nonfried) syntype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Male parameres, caudal view E Specimen labels.
Figure 58.
Figure 58.
Pelidnota crassipes Ohaus type male (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 59.
Figure 59.
Pelidnota cuprea var. coerulea Ohaus (unavailable name) (valid name Pelidnota cuprea [Germar]) invalid type female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 60.
Figure 60.
Pelidnota cuprea var. nigrocoerulea Ohaus (unavailable name) (valid name Pelidnota cuprea [Germar]) invalid type female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 61.
Figure 61.
Pelidnota cuprea var. rufoviolacea Ohaus (unavailable name) (valid name Pelidnota cuprea [Germar]) invalid type male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 62.
Figure 62.
Pelidnota discicollis Ohaus holotype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 63.
Figure 63.
Pelidnota dubia F. Bates syntype male from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 64.
Figure 64.
Pelidnota ebenina (Blanchard) female specimen compared [by Jameson] with syntype from MNHN. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 65.
Figure 65.
Pelidnota fracida F. Bates syntype male from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 66.
Figure 66.
Pelidnota fusciventris Ohaus type female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and egg.
Figure 67.
Figure 67.
Pelidnota (Odontognathus) gabrielae Martínez (valid name Pelidnota gabrielae Martínez) allotype female from MACN. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 68.
Figure 68.
Pelidnota hoefigi Ohaus syntype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 69.
Figure 69.
Strigidia incerta Soula holotype female from CCECL (valid name Pelidnota incerta (Soula)). A Dorsal habitus B Female gonocoxites, dorsal view C Specimen labels.
Figure 70.
Figure 70.
Pelidnota (Chalcoplethis) jolyi Martínez (valid name Pelidnota jolyi Martínez) paratype male from CMNC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 71.
Figure 71.
Pelidnota kirschi var. tenuistriata F. Bates (valid name Pelidnota kirschi tenuistriata F. Bates) holotype female from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 72.
Figure 72.
Heteropelidnota kuhnti Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota kuhnti [Ohaus]) holotype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 73.
Figure 73.
Pelidnota assumpta Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota liturella assumpta Ohaus) holotype male from ZMHB. A Lateral habitus B Specimen labels and male genitalia C Male parameres, dorsal view D Male genitalia, lateral view.
Figure 74.
Figure 74.
Pelidnota malyi Soula male paratype from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus B Male genitalia, dorsal view C Specimen labels.
Figure 75.
Figure 75.
Pelidnota (Ganonota) matogrossensis Frey (valid name Pelidnota matogrossensis Frey) paratype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Male genitalia, lateral view D Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 76.
Figure 76.
Pelidnota (Ganonota) ohausi Frey (valid name Pelidnota ohausi ohausi Frey) paratype from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 77.
Figure 77.
Pelidnota (Pelidnota) perplexa Hardy (valid name Pelidnota perplexa Hardy) paratype female from CNC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 78.
Figure 78.
Rutela pulchella Kirby (valid name Pelidnota pulchella pulchella [Kirby]) syntype female from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 79.
Figure 79.
Scarabaeus punctatus Linnaeus (valid name Pelidnota punctata [Linnaeus]) female lectotype from UUZM. A Dorsal habitus B Ventral habitus C Specimen labels. Photographs courtesy of Dr. Hans Mejlon, Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Figure 80.
Figure 80.
Pelidnota rostrata Burmeister (male specimen compared with Burmeister’s syntype by Ohaus from the Weber Collection). A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 81.
Figure 81.
Pelidnota viridana Blanchard (female specimen compared with Blanchard’s syntype by Ohaus which is deposited at MNHN) (valid name Pelidnota rostrata Burmeister). A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 82.
Figure 82.
Odontognathus riedeli Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota rubripennis riedeli [Ohaus]) syntype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male parameres, caudal view E Male genitalia, lateral view.
Figure 83.
Figure 83.
Pelidnota rubripennis rubripennis (Burmeister) (male specimen compared with Burmeister’s syntype by Ohaus from MLUH). A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 84.
Figure 84.
Pelidnota rufipennis Waterhouse (valid name Pelidnota rubripennis [Burmeister]) type female (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 85.
Figure 85.
Pelidnota pubes Ohaus syntype male from ZMHB (valid name Pelidnota sanctidomini sanctidomini Ohaus). A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male parameres, dorsal view E Male genitalia, lateral view.
Figure 86.
Figure 86.
Pelidnota sanctidomini sanctidomini Ohaus holotype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 87.
Figure 87.
Pelidnota söderströmi Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota soederstroemi Ohaus) holotype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and mouthparts.
Figure 88.
Figure 88.
Pelidnota subandina Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota subandina subandina Ohaus) syntype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male parameres, dorsal view E Male genitalia, lateral view.
Figure 89.
Figure 89.
Pelidnota vittipennis F. Bates (valid name Pelidnota testaceovirens vittipennis F. Bates) syntype male from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 90.
Figure 90.
Pelidnota thiliezi male, neotype from CCECL. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male genitalia, dorsal view.
Figure 91.
Figure 91.
Pelidnota zikani Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota tibialis tibialis Burmeister) syntype male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 92.
Figure 92.
Heteropelidnota cribrata Ohaus paralectotype male (valid name Pelidnota touroulti Soula) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels, mouthparts, and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 93.
Figure 93.
Pelidnota uncinata Ohaus type male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 94.
Figure 94.
Pelidnota unicolor var. infuscata Ohaus (unavailable name) (valid name Pelidnota unicolor [Drury]) invalid type female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.
Figure 95.
Figure 95.
Heteropelidnota ustarani Martínez (valid name Pelidnota ustarani [Martínez]) holotype male from MACN. A Dorsal habitus B Specimen labels and male genitalia.
Figure 96.
Figure 96.
Pelidnota viridicuprea Ohaus holotype female from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and egg.
Figure 97.
Figure 97.
Pelidnota (Ganonota) vitalisi Ohaus (valid name Pelidnota vitalisi Ohaus) type male (see “Type specimens and lectotype designation” in Methods) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, dorsal view.
Figure 98.
Figure 98.
Peruquime arequipensis Mondaca and Valencia male paratype specimen from JMEC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus. Photographs courtesy of José Mondaca, Santiago, Chile.
Figure 99.
Figure 99.
Pseudogeniates cordobaensis, sp. n. male paratype from MLJC. A Dorsal habitus B Male genitalia, dorsal view C Male parameres, ventral view.
Figure 100.
Figure 100.
Sorocha marxi Soula male specimen from DJCC. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 101.
Figure 101.
Sorocha maylini Soula holotype male from BMNH. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 102.
Figure 102.
Pelidnota (Ganonota) plicipennis Ohaus (valid name Sorocha plicipennis [Ohaus]) type male from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 103.
Figure 103.
Pelidnota similis Ohaus (valid name Sorocha similis [Ohaus]) male specimen (possibly invalid type) from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 104.
Figure 104.
Pelidnota tolimana Ohaus (valid name Sorocha tolimana [Ohaus]) male syntype from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 105.
Figure 105.
Pelidnota (Ganonota) yungana Ohaus (valid name Sorocha yungana [Ohaus]) male holotype from ZMHB. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 106.
Figure 106.
Xenopelidnota anomala porioni Chalumeau male paratype from MNHN. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels and male genitalia D Male genitalia, lateral view E Male parameres, caudal view.
Figure 107.
Figure 107.
Pelidnota fuscoaenea Blanchard (valid name Xenopelidnota fuscoaenea [Blanchard]) female syntype from MNHN. A Dorsal habitus B Lateral habitus C Specimen labels.

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