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. 2017 Jul 27;10(8):859.
doi: 10.3390/ma10080859.

Er-Doped LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O₄ Cathode Material With Enhanced Cycling Stability for Lithium-Ion Batteries

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Er-Doped LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O₄ Cathode Material With Enhanced Cycling Stability for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Shanshan Liu et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ (LiNi0.495Mn1.495Er0.01O₄) sample was successfully prepared by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with erbium oxide as an erbium source for the first time. Compared with the undoped sample, the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ sample maintained the basic spinel structure, suggesting that the substitution of Er3+ ions for partial nickel and manganese ions did not change the intrinsic structure of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄. Moreover, the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ sample showed better size distribution and regular octahedral morphology. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Er-doping could have a positive impact on the electrochemical properties. When cycled at 0.5 C, the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄ sample exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 120.6 mAh·g-1, and the capacity retention of this sample reached up to 92.9% after 100 cycles. As the charge/discharge rate restored from 2.0 C to 0.2 C, the discharge capacity of this sample still exhibited 123.7 mAh·g-1 with excellent recovery rate. Since the bonding energy of Er-O (615 kJ·mol-1) was higher than that of Mn-O (402 kJ·mol -1) and Ni-O (392 kJ·mol-1), these outstanding performance could be attributed to the increased structure stability as well as the reduced aggregation behavior and small charge transfer resistance of the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O₄.

Keywords: Er-doping; LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4; Lithium-ion battery; citric acid-assisted sol-gel method; cycling stability.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
XRD patterns of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b).
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM images of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) patterns of the undoped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b) sample (The inset in Figure 3a,b is corresponding EDS data); (cf) Elemental mapping images of Ni, Mn, Er, and O elements in the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 sample.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) patterns of the undoped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b) sample (The inset in Figure 3a,b is corresponding EDS data); (cf) Elemental mapping images of Ni, Mn, Er, and O elements in the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 sample.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Representative charge/discharge curves of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b); cycling performance and coulombic efficiency of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (c) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (d).
Figure 5
Figure 5
(a) Long cycling performance and (b) coulombic efficiency of the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at 0.5 C.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Representative discharge curves of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b) at different rates; (c) rate capability of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4; (d) cycling stability of the Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at 2.0 C.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Cycling performance of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at 55 °C.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Representative discharge curves of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (a) and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (b) at 55 °C.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Cyclic voltammograms of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 in the range of 3.5–4.9 V.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Nyquist plots of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Er-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 before cycles (the insert is the equivalent circuit model of EIS).

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