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. 2016 Oct 11;9(10):824.
doi: 10.3390/ma9100824.

Application of a Loop-Type Laboratory Biofilm Reactor to the Evaluation of Biofilm for Some Metallic Materials and Polymers Such as Urinary Stents and Catheters

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Free PMC article

Application of a Loop-Type Laboratory Biofilm Reactor to the Evaluation of Biofilm for Some Metallic Materials and Polymers Such as Urinary Stents and Catheters

Hideyuki Kanematsu et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

A laboratory biofilm reactor (LBR) was modified to a new loop-type closed system in order to evaluate novel stents and catheter materials using 3D optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Two metallic specimens, pure nickel and cupronickel (80% Cu-20% Ni), along with two polymers, silicone and polyurethane, were chosen as examples to ratify the system. Each set of specimens was assigned to the LBR using either tap water or an NB (Nutrient broth based on peptone from animal foods and beef extract mainly)-cultured solution with E-coli formed over 48-72 h. The specimens were then analyzed using Raman Spectroscopy. 3D optical microscopy was employed to corroborate the Raman Spectroscopy results for only the metallic specimens since the inherent roughness of the polymer specimens made such measurements difficult. The findings suggest that the closed loop-type LBR together with Raman spectroscopy analysis is a useful method for evaluating biomaterials as a potential urinary system.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; biofilm; loop-type laboratory biofilm reactor.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Previous laboratory biofilm reactor (LBR) for our studies.
Figure 2
Figure 2
The current LBR for this investigation.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The 3D images by the optical microscopy for pure nickel specimens. (a) Before immersion; (b) resident microbiota; (c) E-coli.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Raman shift peaks and the optical microscopic images for pure nickel specimens. (a) Before immersion; (b) resident microbiota; (c) E-coli.
Figure 5
Figure 5
The 3D images by the optical microscopy for cupronickel specimens. (a) Before immersion; (b) resident microbiota; (c) E-coli.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Raman shift peaks and the optical microscopic images for cupronickel specimens. (a) Before immersion; (b) resident microbiota; (c) E-coli.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Optical microscopic images for polymeric specimens. (a) Silicon before immersion; (b) silicon after immersion; (c) polyurethane before immersion; (d) polyurethane after immersion.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Raman shifts for the silicone specimen before immersion.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Raman shifts for the silicone specimens before (a) and after immersion (bd).
Figure 10
Figure 10
Raman shifts for the polyurethane specimens before (a) and after immersion (bd).

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