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Review
. 2018 Jan 15;460:246-257.
doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.07.038. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Frontiers in Endocrine Disruption: Impacts of Organotin on the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

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Review

Frontiers in Endocrine Disruption: Impacts of Organotin on the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Ana Paula Santos-Silva et al. Mol Cell Endocrinol. .

Abstract

Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR. TBT exposure in humans and experimental models has been shown to mainly affect reproductive function and adipocyte differentiation. Since thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in regulating the basal metabolic rate and energy homeostasis, it is crucial to clarify the effects of TBT on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Therefore, we review herein the main effects of TBT on important metabolic pathways, with emphasis on disruption of the thyroid axis that could contribute to the development of endocrine and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and obesity.

Keywords: Endocrine disruptor; Metabolism; Thyroid; Tributyltin.

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