Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) is a chronic neurologic disorder of daytime sleepiness, accompanied by long sleep times, unrefreshing sleep, difficulty in awakening, cognitive dysfunction, and autonomic symptoms. The cause is unknown; a genetic predisposition is suggested. Autonomic, inflammatory, or immune dysfunction has been proposed. Diagnosis involves a clinical history and objective testing. There are no approved treatments for IH, but modafinil is typically considered first-line. A substantial fraction of patients with IH are refractory or intolerant to standard treatments, and different treatment strategies using novel therapeutics are necessary. Even with current treatment options, quality of life and safety may remain impaired.
Keywords: Excessive daytime sleepiness; Idiopathic hypersomnia; Multiple sleep latency test; Narcolepsy; Sleep drunkenness.
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