Discriminative stimulus properties of (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in pigeons

Drug Alcohol Depend. 1986 Oct;18(2):159-64. doi: 10.1016/0376-8716(86)90048-7.


Pigeons trained to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (AMPH) from saline in a two-key food-maintained drug discrimination paradigm, were used to investigate the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of two structural analogues of amphetamine, namely (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). After discrimination performance was stable (90% injection-appropriate responding), test sessions with various doses of AMPH were conducted and a dose-dependent relationship for AMPH-appropriate responding was obtained. Both MDMA (3.0 mg/kg) and MDA (3.0 or 5.6 mg/kg) substituted for AMPH; however, at these doses MDA produced a greater decrease in response rate compared to AMPH and MDMA. Furthermore, while MDMA and MDA were similar in potency in producing drug-appropriate responding, both were less potent than AMPH. These results indicate that MDMA and MDA have DS effects similar to AMPH in pigeons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine / analogs & derivatives
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine / pharmacology*
  • Amphetamine / pharmacology
  • Amphetamines / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Columbidae
  • Discrimination Learning / drug effects
  • Discrimination, Psychological / drug effects*
  • N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine


  • Amphetamines
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
  • Amphetamine
  • N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine