Increased circulating stem cells and better cognitive performance in traumatic brain injury subjects following hyperbaric oxygen therapy

Undersea Hyperb Med. 2017 May-Jun;44(3):257-269. doi: 10.22462/5.6.2017.6.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause persistent cognitive dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed to determine if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) treatment improves cognitive performance. It was hypothesized that stem cells, mobilized by HBO₂ treatment, are recruited to repair damaged neuronal tissue. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the relative abundance of stem cells in peripheral blood and cognitive performance during this clinical trial. The subject population consisted of 28 subjects with persistent cognitive impairment caused by mild to moderate TBI suffered during military deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis was performed for stem cell markers in peripheral blood and correlated with variables resulting from standard tests of cognitive performance and post-traumatic stress disorder: ImPACT, BrainCheckers and PCL-M test results. HBO₂ treatment correlated with stem cell mobilization as well as increased cognitive performance. Together these results support the hypothesis that stem cell mobilization may be required for cognitive improvement in this population.

Keywords: HBO₂; PTSD; TBI; cognitive performance; hyperbaric oxygen; neurocognitive assessment; stem cell; traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • AC133 Antigen
  • Afghan Campaign 2001-
  • Antigens, CD34
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / blood
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / complications
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / therapy*
  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Cognition / physiology*
  • Cognition Disorders / blood
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology
  • Cognition Disorders / therapy*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Hyperbaric Oxygenation*
  • Iraq War, 2003-2011
  • Military Personnel*
  • Nestin / analysis
  • Neural Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • AC133 Antigen
  • Antigens, CD34
  • Nestin