Light and electron microscopic localizations of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) in rat kidney was investigated using immunoenzyme and protein A-gold techniques. The enzyme was purified from rat kidney homogenate and its antibody was raised in rabbits. By Ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis and immunoblot analysis with anti-(rat kidney DAO) immunoglobulin, the antibody was confirmed to be monospecific. The tissue sections (200 micron thick) of fixed rat kidney were embedded in Epon or Lowicryl K4M. Semi-thin sections were stained for DAO by the immunoenzyme technique after removal of epoxy resin for LM, and ultra-thin sections of Lowicryl-embedded material were labeled for DAO by the protein A-gold technique for EM. By LM, fine cytoplasmic granules of proximal tubule were stained exclusively. Among three segments of proximal tubules, and S2 and S3 segments were heavily stained but the S1 segment only weakly so. By EM, gold particles indicating the antigenic sites for DAO were exclusively confined to peroxisomes. Within peroxisomes, the gold particles were localized in the central clear matrix but not in the peripheral tubular substructures. The results indicate that D-amino acid oxidase in rat kidney is present exclusively in peroxisomes in the proximal tubule and that within peroxisomes it is found only in central clear matrix and not in the peripheral tubular substructures.