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Shear Bond Strength and Remineralisation Effect of a Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement on Artificial "Caries-Affected" Dentine

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Shear Bond Strength and Remineralisation Effect of a Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement on Artificial "Caries-Affected" Dentine

Irene Shuping Zhao et al. Int J Mol Sci.

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) on shear bond strength (SBS) and remineralisation of artificial "caries-affected" dentine. Human dentine slices were demineralised and allocated to three groups: group 1, conventional GIC; group 2, CPP-ACP-modified GIC; and group 3, resin-modified GIC. The SBS was measured using a universal testing machine (n = 16 per group). Remaining samples (n = 8 per group) were subjected to pH-cycling for 28 days. After pH-cycling, lesion depth and micro-mechanical properties at the sample-bonding interface were investigated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and nano-indentation, respectively. The SBS for groups 1 to 3 were 4.6 ± 1.5 MPa, 4.2 ± 1.1 MPa, and 5.9 ± 1.9 MPa, respectively (p = 0.007; group 1, group 2 < group 3). Lesion depths determined by micro-CT for groups 1 to 3 were 186 ± 8 µm, 149 ± 14 µm, and 178 ± 8 µm, respectively (p < 0.001; group 2 < group 1, group 3). The mean (±SD, standard deviation) nano-hardness values for groups 1 to 3 were 0.85 ± 0.22 GPa, 1.14 ± 0.21 GPa, and 0.81 ± 0.09 GPa, respectively (p = 0.003; group 1, group 3 < group 2). The mean (±SD) elastic moduli for groups 1 to 3 were 1.70 ± 0.33 GPa, 2.35 ± 0.44 GPa, and 1.59 ± 0.13 GPa, respectively (p < 0.001; group 1, group 3 < group 2). The results suggest that the incorporation of CPP-ACP into GIC does not adversely affect the adhesion to artificial caries-affected dentine. Furthermore, CPP-ACP-modified GIC is superior to conventional GIC in promoting dentine remineralisation.

Keywords: casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP); glass ionomer; remineralisation; shear bond strength.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Failure modes of the dentine-GIC (glass ionomer cement) interface under scanning electronic microscope (SEM) at 1000× magnification. Adhesive failure: conventional GIC (1a); Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified GIC (2a); resin-modified GIC (3a). Mixed failure: conventional GIC (1b); CPP-ACP-modified GIC (2b); resin-modified GIC (3b). Cohesive failure: conventional GIC (1c); CPP-ACP-modified GIC (2c); resin-modified GIC (3c).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Typical micro-CT images of the three groups. (1) Interface of demineralised dentine and conventional GICs; (2) interface of demineralised dentine and CPP-ACP-modified GICs; (3) Interface of demineralised dentine and resin-modified GICs. M–Material, D–Dentine, L–Lesion.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Typical force-displacement curve of the nano-indentation test on dentine. Maximum loading force: 100 mN.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Flowchart of the study.

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