The fluorocycline TP-271 was evaluated in mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of inhalational anthrax. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only aerosol to Bacillus anthracis Ames spores at a level of 18 to 88 lethal doses sufficient to kill 50% of exposed individuals (LD50). When 21 days of once-daily dosing was initiated at 24 h postchallenge (the postexposure prophylaxis [PEP] study), the rates of survival for the groups treated with TP-271 at 3, 6, 12, and 18 mg/kg of body weight were 90%, 95%, 95%, and 84%, respectively. When 21 days of dosing was initiated at 48 h postchallenge (the treatment [Tx] study), the rates of survival for the groups treated with TP-271 at 6, 12, and 18 mg/kg TP-271 were 100%, 91%, and 81%, respectively. No deaths of TP-271-treated mice occurred during the 39-day posttreatment observation period. In the NHP model, cynomolgus macaques received an average dose of 197 LD50 of B. anthracis Ames spore equivalents using a head-only inhalation exposure chamber, and once-daily treatment of 1 mg/kg TP-271 lasting for 14 or 21 days was initiated within 3 h of detection of protective antigen (PA) in the blood. No (0/8) animals in the vehicle control-treated group survived, whereas all 8 infected macaques treated for 21 days and 4 of 6 macaques in the 14-day treatment group survived to the end of the study (56 days postchallenge). All survivors developed toxin-neutralizing and anti-PA IgG antibodies, indicating an immunologic response. On the basis of the results obtained with the mouse and NHP models, TP-271 shows promise as a countermeasure for the treatment of inhalational anthrax.
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis; TP-271; anthrax; fluorocycline.
Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.