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. 2015 Mar 13;8(3):1074-1088.
doi: 10.3390/ma8031074.

Cellular Response to Doping of High Porosity Foamed Alumina With Ca, P, Mg, and Si

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Free PMC article

Cellular Response to Doping of High Porosity Foamed Alumina With Ca, P, Mg, and Si

Edwin Soh et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Foamed alumina was previously synthesised by direct foaming of sulphate salt blends varying ammonium mole fraction (AMF), foaming heating rate and sintering temperature. The optimal product was produced with 0.33AMF, foaming at 100 °C/h and sintering at 1600 °C. This product attained high porosity of 94.39%, large average pore size of 300 µm and the highest compressive strength of 384 kPa. To improve bioactivity, doping of porous alumina by soaking in dilute or saturated solutions of Ca, P, Mg, CaP or CaP + Mg was done. Saturated solutions of Ca, P, Mg, CaP and CaP + Mg were made with excess salt in distilled water and decanted. Dilute solutions were made by diluting the 100% solution to 10% concentration. Doping with Si was done using the sol gel method at 100% concentration only. Cell culture was carried out with MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Cellular response to the Si and P doped samples was positive with high cell populations and cell layer formation. The impact of doping with phosphate produced a result not previously reported. The cellular response showed that both Si and P doping improved the biocompatibility of the foamed alumina.

Keywords: cellular response; doping; foaming; porous alumina.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical synthesis of aluminium sulphate and ammonium sulphate solution.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of sintered porous alumina.
Figure 3
Figure 3
SEM of porous alumina with 10%Ca (a); 100%Ca (b); 10%P (c); 100%P (d); 10%Mg (e); 100%Mg (f); 10%CaP (g); 100%CaP (h); 10%Ca + P + Mg (i); 100%Ca + P + Mg (j).
Figure 4
Figure 4
SEM of porous alumina with 100% Si.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Plot of cell viability for doping alumina with Ca, P, Mg, Si as well as mixtures used with a concentration of 10% and 100%. Porous alumina without doping used as control specimen. Red horizontal line represents the seeded density of cells count.
Figure 6
Figure 6
SEM micrographs cell layer formation (a) phosphate showing migration of cells into porous network; (b) phosphate showing morphology of confluent layer at high magnification with squamous appearance; (c) silica showing two cell monolayers spanning across pore openings; (d) silica showing two monolayer of cells migrating towards each other along the wall of the silica doped alumina.
Figure 7
Figure 7
SEM images revealing the morphology of MG63 cells seeded on to porous alumina doped with Calcium.

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