Background and purpose: This investigation reviews the item content of writing selfefficacy (WSE) measures developed for undergraduate students. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and a writing theory by Flower and Hayes informed the a priori themes used to develop a template of WSE categories critical to the concept.
Method: Articles describing WSE measures were identified through Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar (1984-2015). A template analysis method was used to analyze 182 individual items present on 11 WSE instruments. A nursing perspective was applied.
Results: The analysis identified 16 categories influencing WSE as well as gaps in current measurement items.
Conclusion: The theoretical examination of WSE is the first step toward the development of a WSE measure specific to the nursing context and contributes to nursing education by advancing the measurement of WSE.