A Template Analysis of Writing Self-Efficacy Measures

J Nurs Meas. 2017 Aug 1;25(2):205-223. doi: 10.1891/1061-3749.25.2.205.


Background and purpose: This investigation reviews the item content of writing selfefficacy (WSE) measures developed for undergraduate students. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and a writing theory by Flower and Hayes informed the a priori themes used to develop a template of WSE categories critical to the concept.

Method: Articles describing WSE measures were identified through Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar (1984-2015). A template analysis method was used to analyze 182 individual items present on 11 WSE instruments. A nursing perspective was applied.

Results: The analysis identified 16 categories influencing WSE as well as gaps in current measurement items.

Conclusion: The theoretical examination of WSE is the first step toward the development of a WSE measure specific to the nursing context and contributes to nursing education by advancing the measurement of WSE.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Nursing Process*
  • Psychometrics*
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Students, Nursing / psychology*
  • Writing*