Objectives: We examined the long-term effects of everolimus in patients with renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Methods: Following favorable results from the double-blind core phase of EXIST-2 (NCT00790400), patients were allowed to receive open-label everolimus (extension phase). Patients initially randomly assigned to everolimus continued on the same dose; those who were receiving placebo crossed over to everolimus 10 mg/day. Dose modifications were based on tolerability. The primary end point was angiomyolipoma response rate, defined as a ≥50% reduction from baseline in the sum volume of target renal angiomyolipomas in the absence of new target angiomyolipomas, kidney volume increase of >20% from nadir, and angiomyolipoma-related bleeding grade ≥2. The key secondary end point was safety.
Results: Of the 112 patients who received ≥1 dose of everolimus, 58% (95% CI, 48.3% to 67.3%) achieved angiomyolipoma response. Almost all patients (97%) experienced reduction in renal lesion volumes at some point during the study period. Median duration of everolimus exposure was 46.9 months. Sixteen (14.3%) patients experienced angiomyolipoma progression at some point in the study. No angiomyolipoma-related bleeding or nephrectomies were reported. One patient on everolimus underwent embolization for worsening right flank pain. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma lesion response was achieved in 48% of patients and skin lesion response in 68% of patients. The most common adverse events suspected to be treatment-related were stomatitis (42%), hypercholesterolemia (30.4%), acne (25.9%), aphthous stomatitis and nasopharyngitis (each 21.4%). Ten (8.9%) patients withdrew because of an adverse event. Renal function remained stable, and the frequency of emergent adverse events generally decreased over time.
Conclusions: Everolimus treatment remained safe and effective over approximately 4 years. The overall risk/benefit assessment supports the use of everolimus as a viable treatment option for angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00790400.