Background: An understanding of the dietary behaviors linked to substantial postpartum weight retention, particularly in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes (GDM), is warranted to focus intervention efforts to prevent future type 2 diabetes. This study evaluates the relationship between dietary food intake at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline) and odds of substantial postpartum weight retention (≥ 5 kg) at 1-year in women with GDM.
Methods: The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT) is a prospective multi-ethnic cohort (75% minority) of 1035 women (aged 20-45 years) with recent GDM who delivered a singleton, live birth (≥35 weeks gestation) and underwent 2-h 75 g OGTTs, anthropometric measurements and other assessments at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline) and annually thereafter. Eight hundred and eighty-eight women without diabetes at baseline completed the 18-item PrimeScreen to assess dietary intake and the 13-item Caffeine Survey to assess beverage intake, and completed 1-year follow-up. Average postpartum weight retention was calculated (1-year postpartum weight minus pre-pregnancy weight). Multivariable logistic regression models that estimated baseline dietary intake and odds of substantial postpartum weight retention (SPPWR ≥5 kg above pre-pregnancy weight) versus not SPPWR adjusted for numerous clinical, sociodemographic and behavioral covariates.
Results: Compared to eating no fried foods, women who reported eating fried foods ≥5 servings/wk. (n = 32) and 2-4 serv/wk. (n = 208), respectively, had a three-fold and two-fold higher odds of SPPWR (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:1.36-8.38, P = 0.009; OR = 1.99, 95% CI:1.30-3.03, P = 0.02), after adjustment for covariates and other foods and soda intake. Soda intake ≥2 serv/wk. versus none was associated with higher odds of SPPWR (OR = 1.95, 95% CI:1.22-3.11, P = 0.005) adjusted for fried foods and covariates, but was attenuated (OR = 1.61,95% CI:0.98-2.66, p = 0.06) after addition of whole eggs and processed meats.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that interventions should focus on reducing fried foods and soda intake during early postpartum periods to reduce substantial postpartum weight retention in high-risk women with GDM.
Trial registration: NCT01967030; October 2013, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Health and Human Development (NICHD).
Keywords: Dietary intake; Gestational diabetes; Postpartum weight retention; Soda.