It has been suggested that exposure to high temperature or hypoxia may confer tolerance to the other oxygen-limited stressor (i.e., 'cross-tolerance'). Thus, we investigated if chronic hypoxia-acclimation (>3 months at 40% air saturation) improved the steelhead trout's critical thermal maximum (CTMax), or affected key physiological variables that could impact upper thermal tolerance. Neither CTMax (24.7 vs. 25.3°C) itself, nor oxygen consumption ( [Formula: see text] ), haematocrit, blood haemoglobin concentration, or heart rate differed between hypoxia- and normoxia-acclimated trout when acutely warmed. However, the cardiac output (Q̇) of hypoxia-acclimated fish plateaued earlier compared to normoxia-acclimated fish due to an inability to maintain stroke volume (SV), and this resulted in a ~50% lower maximum Q̇. Despite this reduced maximum cardiac function, hypoxia-acclimated trout were able to consume more O2 per volume of blood pumped as evidenced by the equivalent [Formula: see text] . These results provide additional evidence that long-term hypoxia improves tissue oxygen utilization, and that this compensates for diminished cardiac pumping capacity. The limited SV in hypoxia-acclimated trout in vivo was not associated with changes in cardiac morphology or in vitro maximum SV, but the affinity and density of myocardial ß-adrenoreceptors were lower and higher, respectively, than in normoxia-acclimated fish. These data suggest that alterations in ventricular filling dynamics or myocardial contractility constrain cardiac function in hypoxia-acclimated fish at high temperatures. Our results do not support (1) 'cross-tolerance' between high temperature and hypoxia when hypoxia is chronic, or (2) that cardiac function is always the determinant of temperature-induced changes in fish [Formula: see text] , and thus thermal tolerance, as suggested by the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) theory.
Keywords: Blood oxygen carrying capacity; Cardiac function; Chronic hypoxia; Heart; High temperature; ß-adrenergic receptors.
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