The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by hydrogen breath test in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with respect to a consistent control group. From 2011 to 2013, 310 children with ASD and 1240 sex- and age-matched typical children were enrolled in this study to undergo glucose breath test. The study participants were considered to exhibit SIBO when an increase in H2 of ≥20 ppm or CH4 of ≥10 ppm with respect to the fasting value was observed up to 60 min after the ingestion of glucose. Ninety-six children with autism suffered from SIBO, giving a prevalence rate of SIBO was 31.0% (95% CI 25.8-36.1%). In contrast, 9.3% of the typical children acknowledged SIBO. The difference between groups was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The median Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) score in the children with autism and with SIBO was significantly high when compared with the children without autism and without SIBO [98 (IQR, 45-120) vs. 63 (32-94), P < 0.001]. For the autism group, the 6-GI Severity Index (6-GSI) score was found to be strongly and significantly correlated with the total ATEC score (r = 0.639, P < 0.0001). SIBO was significantly associated with worse symptoms of autism, demonstrating that children with SIBO may significantly contribute to symptoms of autism.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders; Chinese; Hydrogen glucose breath test; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.