Acute and mid-term outcomes of stent implantation for recurrent coarctation of the aorta between the Norwood operation and fontan completion: A multi-center Pediatric Interventional Cardiology Early Career Society Investigation

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 Nov 15;90(6):972-979. doi: 10.1002/ccd.27231. Epub 2017 Aug 11.


Objectives: We sought to evaluate outcomes of stent implantation (SI) for recurrent coarctation of the aorta (RC) following the Norwood operation.

Background: RC is common following the Norwood operation. Balloon angioplasty (BA) is standard treatment but may result in unsatisfactory relief of RC. SI may improve RC, but outcome data are limited.

Methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study of patients who underwent SI for RC between the Norwood operation and Fontan completion. Outcomes were examined, including procedural success, serious adverse events (SAE), and freedom from re-intervention. A core laboratory was utilized to review angiograms. Coarctation Index (CI) was calculated before and after SI. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to compare pre- and post-SI variables.

Results: Thirty-three patients at 8 centers underwent SI for RC at a median age of 5 months (IQR 4.1, 13.3) and weight of 5.9 kg (5.2, 8.6). Aortic arch gradient improved from 20 (15, 24) to 0 (0, 2) mmHg following SI (P < 0.0001). The median CI improved from 0.54 (0.43, 0.62) to 0.97 (0.89, 1.06) following SI (P < 0.0001). There were no procedural deaths but SAEs occurred in 12 (36%) patients. During a median follow-up duration of 29.7 months (6.8, 48.0), freedom from death or heart transplant was 82%, and from re-intervention was 45%, with median time to re-intervention of 20.1 months (11.4, 40.3).

Conclusions: SI for treatment of RC in patients after the Norwood operation provides excellent acute relief of obstruction. Intraprocedural hemodynamic instability is common and re-intervention is frequent at mid-term follow-up.

Keywords: norwood operation; recoarctation of the aorta; stent implantation.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple*
  • Angiography
  • Aorta, Thoracic / surgery
  • Aortic Coarctation / diagnosis
  • Aortic Coarctation / surgery*
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / methods*
  • Cardiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / surgery*
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Norwood Procedures / methods*
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Societies, Medical*
  • Stents*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States