Volume of cerebrospinal fluid drainage as a predictor for pretreatment aneurysmal rebleeding

J Neurosurg. 2018 Jun;128(6):1778-1784. doi: 10.3171/2017.2.JNS162748. Epub 2017 Aug 11.


OBJECTIVE Initiation of external CSF drainage has been associated with a significant increase in rebleeding probability after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). However, the implications for acute management are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the amount of drained CSF on aneurysmal rebleeding. METHODS Consecutive patients with aSAH were analyzed retrospectively. Radiologically confirmed cases of aneurysmal in-hospital rebleeding were identified and predictor variables for rebleeding were retrieved from hospital records. Clinical predictors were identified through multivariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain the cutoff value for the rebleeding probability. RESULTS The study included 194 patients. Eighteen cases (9.3%) of in-hospital rebleeding could be identified. Using multivariate analysis, in-hospital rebleeding was significantly associated with initiation of CSF drainage (p = 0.001) and CSF drainage volume (63 ml [interquartile range (IQR) 55-69 ml] vs 25 ml [IQR 10-35 ml], p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that 58 ml of CSF drainage within 6 hours results in a 50% rebleeding probability. The relative risk (RR) for rebleeding after drainage of more than 60 ml in 6 hours was 5.4 times greater compared with patients with less CSF drainage (RR 5.403, 95% CI 2.481-11.767; p < 0.001, number needed to harm = 1.687). CONCLUSIONS Volume of CSF drainage was highly correlated with the probability of in-hospital aneurysmal rebleeding. These findings suggest that the rebleeding probability can be affected in acute management should the placement of an external ventricular catheter be necessary. This finding necessitates meticulous control of the amount of drained CSF and the development of a definitive treatment protocol for this group of patients.

Keywords: CI = confidence interval; EVD = external ventricular drain; ICP = intracranial pressure; IQR = interquartile range; NNH = number needed to harm; RR = relative risk; SBP = systolic blood pressure; WFNS = World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies; aSAH = aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; cerebrospinal fluid; external ventricular drainage; intracranial aneurysm; recurrence; risk factor; subarachnoid hemorrhage; vascular disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Catheters
  • Cerebral Ventricles
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Probability
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / therapy*