We have earlier reported the reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and oxidized LDL caused by short-term modification of diet with cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) instead of butter. The aim of this supplementary study was to determine whether the beneficial effects resulted from altered cholesterol metabolism during the intervention.Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome (MetS) completed an open, randomized and balanced crossover study. Subjects' usual diet was supplemented with either 37.5 g of butter or 35 mL of CPTRO for 6-8 weeks. Otherwise normal dietary habits and physical activity were maintained without major variations. Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography and used as surrogate markers of whole-body cholesterol synthesis and absorption efficiency. Serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) concentration was analyzed with Quantikine ELISA Immunoassay. Serum cholesterol synthesis markers and serum cholestanol (absorption marker), all as ratios to cholesterol, did not differ between the periods. Serum campesterol and sitosterol ratios to cholesterol were significantly increased after the administration of CPTRO resulting from the increased intake of 217 mg/day of plant sterols in CPTRO. Serum PCSK9 concentration did not differ between CPTRO and butter periods.The reduction in serum cholesterol by 7.2% after consumption of rapeseed oil could not be explained by changes in cholesterol absorption, synthesis or PCSK9 metabolism in MetS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01119690.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Cholesterol; Dietary Fats; Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.
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