Development and Validation of an Instrument to Assess the Impact of Cyberbullying: The Cybervictimization Emotional Impact Scale

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2017 Aug;20(8):479-485. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2017.0069.


Cyberbullying is a phenomenon with important adverse consequences on victims. The emotional impact of this phenomenon has been well established. However, there is to date no instrument with good psychometric properties tested to assess such impact. The objective of this study was developing and testing the psychometric properties of an instrument to assess the emotional impact of cyberbullying: the "Cybervictimization Emotional Impact Scale, CVEIS." The sample included 1,016 Compulsory Secondary Education students (52.9 percent female) aged between 12 and 18 (M = 13.86, DT = 1.33) from three schools in southern Spain. The study used Confirmatory Factor Analyses to test the structure of the questionnaire and robustness of the scale. Internal consistency was also tested. The results supported the suitability of a three-factor model: active, depressed, and annoyed. This model showed an optimal adjustment, which was better than its competing models. It also demonstrated strong invariance among cybervictims and non-cybervictims and also among gender. The internal consistency of each factor, and the total scale, was also appropriate. The article concludes by discussing research and practical implications of the scale.

Keywords: cyberbullying; cybervictimization; emotional impact; psychometric properties.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Bullying*
  • Child
  • Emotions / classification*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Male
  • Psychometrics* / methods
  • Psychometrics* / standards
  • Schools
  • Spain
  • Students* / psychology
  • Students* / statistics & numerical data
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*